path: root/Documentation/x86
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authorChangbin Du <changbin.du@gmail.com>2019-05-08 15:21:29 (GMT)
committerJonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>2019-05-08 20:34:10 (GMT)
commitea0765e835e084707abb7e14d84b572f5ffe4242 (patch)
treeefff70d7e4b6a449476508d3233d9a9802034cb9 /Documentation/x86
parent0c7180f2e4e6fc02f268e18c4f753d9f9cdfb5ad (diff)
Documentation: x86: convert pti.txt to reST
This converts the plain text documentation to reStructuredText format and add it to Sphinx TOC tree. No essential content change. Signed-off-by: Changbin Du <changbin.du@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+samsung@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/x86')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/x86/pti.rst (renamed from Documentation/x86/pti.txt)17
2 files changed, 14 insertions, 4 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/index.rst b/Documentation/x86/index.rst
index 85f1f44..6719def 100644
--- a/Documentation/x86/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/x86/index.rst
@@ -21,3 +21,4 @@ x86-specific Documentation
+ pti
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/pti.txt b/Documentation/x86/pti.rst
index 5cd5843..4b858a9 100644
--- a/Documentation/x86/pti.txt
+++ b/Documentation/x86/pti.rst
@@ -1,9 +1,15 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Page Table Isolation (PTI)
-Page Table Isolation (pti, previously known as KAISER[1]) is a
+Page Table Isolation (pti, previously known as KAISER [1]_) is a
countermeasure against attacks on the shared user/kernel address
-space such as the "Meltdown" approach[2].
+space such as the "Meltdown" approach [2]_.
To mitigate this class of attacks, we create an independent set of
page tables for use only when running userspace applications. When
@@ -60,6 +66,7 @@ Protection against side-channel attacks is important. But,
this protection comes at a cost:
1. Increased Memory Use
a. Each process now needs an order-1 PGD instead of order-0.
(Consumes an additional 4k per process).
b. The 'cpu_entry_area' structure must be 2MB in size and 2MB
@@ -68,6 +75,7 @@ this protection comes at a cost:
is decompressed, but no space in the kernel image itself.
2. Runtime Cost
a. CR3 manipulation to switch between the page table copies
must be done at interrupt, syscall, and exception entry
and exit (it can be skipped when the kernel is interrupted,
@@ -142,6 +150,7 @@ ideally doing all of these in parallel:
interrupted, including nested NMIs. Using "-c" boosts the rate of
NMIs, and using two -c with separate counters encourages nested NMIs
and less deterministic behavior.
+ ::
while true; do perf record -c 10000 -e instructions,cycles -a sleep 10; done
@@ -182,5 +191,5 @@ that are worth noting here.
tended to be TLB invalidation issues. Usually invalidating
the wrong PCID, or otherwise missing an invalidation.
-1. https://gruss.cc/files/kaiser.pdf
-2. https://meltdownattack.com/meltdown.pdf
+.. [1] https://gruss.cc/files/kaiser.pdf
+.. [2] https://meltdownattack.com/meltdown.pdf